segunda-feira, 19 de maio de 2014

Conectivismo: Futuro X Passado

Lendo o artigo Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past?, de Rita Kop e Adrian Hill, achei contraditório sentir tanta falta de uma versão impressa do texto que fala justamente sobre tecnologias na educação. Realmente não gosto de ler sem grifar ou anotar observações e isso ainda me parece ser bem mais simples com o papel e um lápis na mão. Conclusão: preciso providenciar urgentemente o conserto da minha impresora!

Alguns trechos que destaquei da leitura:

  • Connectivism stresses that two important skills that contribute to learning are the ability to seek out current information, and the ability to filter secondary and extraneous information. Simply put, “The capacity to know is more critical than what is actually known”

  • The learning process is cyclical, in that learners will connect to a network to share and find new information, will modify their beliefs on the basis of new learning, and will then connect to a network to share these realizations and find new information once more. Learning is considered a “. . . knowledge creation process . . . not only knowledge consumption.”

  • knowledge does not reside in one location, but rather that it is a confluence of information arising out of multiple individuals seeking inquiry related to a common interest and providing feedback to one another.

  • maximization of learning can best be achieved through identifying the properties of effective networks

  • Connectivism --> explaining behavioural performance and moral development in specific contexts is concerned. 

  • The concept of emergent, connected, and adaptive knowledge provides the epistemological framework for connectivism as a learning theory

  • Kerr (2007a) contends that the relationship between internal and external knowledge environments was accounted for in Vygotsky's formulation of social constructivism, long before any explanation was provided by connectivism.

  • Vygotsky, whose name is inherently linked to social constructivism, saw two important elements in the learning process: ‘language’ and ‘scaffolding.’ Vygotsky noted how self-talk in children serves as a means by which learners may work through complex problems by externalizing them as a form of self-guidance and self-direction. From a cognitive development standpoint, this observation is important because the child’s social interaction with others helps formulate private speech in the child. Instructional scaffolding provides support for learning and problem solving through the use of hints, reviewing material, encouragement, and reducing complex problems into “manageable chunks” (Woolfolk, 1995, p. 49). The relationship between the individual and external knowledge is present in the relationship between what is known by the learner in question, and that knowledge to which the learner is being exposed. (LINK com ZDP)

  • Kerr (2007a) suggests that the ideas that are the basis of connectivism have already been developed by Clark, and that recent widespread recognition for the work of connectivism is due to the high visibility of networks in the current age (e.g., the Internet) compared with in the past.

  • Connectivism --> knowledge ‘not being acquired, as though it were a thing.’

  • Verhagen (2006) -->  he is not convinced that learning can reside in non-human appliances. 

  • Siemens argues that “knowledge does not only reside in the mind of an individual, knowledge resides in a distributed manner across a network . . . learning is the act of recognizing patterns shaped by complex networks.’ These networks are internal, as neural networks, and external, as networks in which we adapt to the world around us (Siemens 2006b, p. 10). 

  • Connectivism X Construtivism --> Language is not responsible for how we think (it may describe how we think only) --> "thinking is actually the arrangement of ‘pieces’ which are then matched to desirable (or undesirable) outcomes."

  • “Although meanings are in the mind, they find their origin and significance in the community in which they were created. . . It is culture that provides the tools for organizing and understanding our worlds in communicable ways” (Bruner 1999, p. 149). 

O texto traz também informações de como deve ser o professor/tutor desse período histórico em que vivemos, ressaltando sua importância, mas alertando para o seu possível desaparecimento em alguns contextos, nos quais alunos aprendem com seus próprios pares.

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